The structure of the pharynx, the feeding of fish.

The structure of the pharynx is also closely linked to feeding habits of fish. As indicated, the number and structure of Gill rakers may be very different — from a few small hard bumps predatory fish to a complex network of frequent rakers in silver carp — Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Val.), litumelo planktonic algae. The mullets — Mugili – dae — muscular throat adapted for crushing lisovogo clump, consisting of detritus and vegetation. Some fish developed teeth on the pharyngeal bones. Some they are on top – and ninepatch bones, as, for example, wrasses — Labridae, or only ninepatch, as, for example, cyprinids — Cyprinidae.

Haeckel (1843) divides nizhnelomovskie teeth of cyprinid by the nature of the structure related to their function into four types:

1) hollowed — excavati, a type of Longhorn beetle,

2) chewing — mastic torii, a type of carp,

3) hamate with chewing site — uncinato submolares, a type of bream,

4) hamate without chewing pad — uncinato conici, type, Chub and ASP (Fig. 125).

In turn, these types are divided into a number of more fractional. Over nizhnegorodski teeth on the underside of the cranial carp fish include the formation of the Horny epithelium in the form of a small corn — so-called Zhernovka. In combination with the Zhernovka and work nizhnelomovskie teeth.

The pharyngeal teeth vary during the ontogeny of rubyw relation to age-related changes in the diet composition. Larvae of bream and carp they are conical, the adult bream is hooked with chewing Playground, and adult carp — chewing.

With the features of the oral and pharyngeal apparatus is closely related to the structure of the intestine.

Predators have a big mouth, short and sparse Gill stamens, large stomach, aliceblue the number of pyloric appendages and short intestinal tract. The relationship between the number of Gill rakers and pyloric appendages are clearly visible on the example of the Caspian herrings (PL.24).

The size of the stomach in fish are in close connection with the nature of power and, primarily, with value production.

Fig. 125. Pharyngeal teeth of cyprinid fish:

1 — Aral barbel Barbus brachycephalus Kessl.; 2— the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.; 3— the bream Abramis brama (L.); 4 — ASP Aspius aspius (L.).

Fish. swallowing large prey or CPA DHU consuming large quantities of food, the stomach is usually large. Predatory fish in the stomach is not only the destruction of the bolus and its partial digestion, but often the victims slew, and in this process an important role is played by hydrochloric acid. Function is often numerous predators had pyloric appendages, apparently, is connected with the neutralization of food passing from the stomach into the intestine, because, as you know, in the stomach of a fish reaction is acidic and the intestines alkaline.